13. Application of Nanotechnology in medical science 10 Most Dynamic Business Leaders in Healthcare and Lifescience Industry 2022

Application of Nanotechnology in medical science

Nanotechnology is a comparatively new branch of science and technology. It deals with designing a structure or device by manipulating atoms and molecules at the nanoscale. The nanoscale has one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nanometers or less. The various applications of nanotechnology have a significant impact on society.

Nanotechnology is already used in industrial sectors like information and communications, but it is also used in food technology, energy technology, and some medicinal items and treatments. Nanomedicine is the term used for the use of nanotechnology in different areas of medicine. Nanomaterials may potentially open up new avenues for reducing the environmental pollution.

Applications in Medical Science

There are many applications of nanotechnology in medical science. Some of them are under trial and some are already implemented in the medical field.

  • Nanotechnology in drug delivery

Nanoparticles are utilized in nanotechnology for site-specific medication delivery.

The required medicine dose is employed in this procedure, and side effects are considerably reduced because the active substance is only deposited in the morbid region. This highly selective technique has the potential to cut costs and pain for patients. A wide range of nanoparticles, such as dendrimers and nanoporous materials are in use.

One contemporary application of nanotechnology in medicine is the use of nanoparticles to deliver medications, heat, light, or other substances to certain types of cells (such as cancer cells). Particles are created to attract damaged cells, allowing for direct treatment of specific cells. This approach protects healthy cells in the body and enables earlier illness identification. For cancer treatment, various nanomaterials are used like carbon nanotubes, Dendrimers, Nanoparticles, Nanoshells, nanowires etc.

  • Diagnosis

It detects cancer cells in the bloodstream using antibodies coupled to carbon nanotubes in semiconductors. A technique for detecting kidney disease is being developed. The approach employs gold nonfoods that have been functionalized to bind to the type of protein produced by damaged kidneys. When protein builds up on the nanorod, the color of the nanorod changes. The test is intended to be performed fast and cheaply to detect an issue as soon as possible. Nanotechnology in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tuberculosis treatment

  • Antibacterial treatment

The technique is developed to kill the bacteria with gold nanoparticles.

  • Ophthalmology

The goal of nanomedicine is to monitor, control, build, repair, defend, and improve human biological systems at the molecular level using nanodevices and nanostructures that act massively in parallel at the unit cell level to provide a medical benefit.

Nanomedicine uses nanotechnology principles such as biomimicry and pseudo intelligence. Treatment of oxidative stress; measurement of intraocular pressure; theragnostic; use of nanoparticles for treatment of choroidal new vessels, scar prevention after glaucoma surgery, and treatment of retinal degenerative disease using gene therapy; prosthetics; and regenerative nanomedicine are some of the applications to ophthalmology.

  • Tissue engineering

Nanotechnology can be used in tissue engineering to replicate or repair damaged tissues. Artificially induced cell proliferation, using appropriate nanomaterial-based scaffolds and growth factors, can be effective in organ transplants or artificial implant therapy, which can lead to life extension.

  • Protein detection

Protein is the important part for human welbeing. Gold particles are commonly used to identify protein – protein interaction.

Applications in other fields

There are many other fields where nanotechnology is used. Some of these include:

  • Electronics
  • Food
  • Space
  • solar cell
  • Fuel
  • Environmental remediation

Advantages

Nanotechnology has the following advantages in the use of medical science.

  • Nanomaterial protects the drug from degradation till it reaches the target
  • Nanotechnology promotes the absorption of the drug into cancerous cells
  • It prevents the drug from interacting with normal cell

Because of their increased surface area and nanoscale effects, nanomaterials are used as a promising technique for the improvement of drug and gene delivery, biomedical imaging, and diagnostic biosensors. Compared to their larger counterparts, nanomaterials have distinct physicochemical and biological features. Nanomaterials have an unusual size, shape, chemical composition, surface structure, charge, and solubility. Because of these features, nanomaterials can profoundly influence their interactions with biomolecules and cells.

Disadvantages

Along with advantages, nanotechnology poses some disadvantages also.

  • It is a very costly technique, development cost is high.
  • The manufacturing of various nanomaterials is a difficult task.

Final thought

Nanotechnology is advanced technology developing almost in all sectors. The continuous research in this field enables the interesting application in medical science.

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