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Wheat grains are typically oval, however, they can range from virtually spherical to long, thin, and flattened shapes depending on the kind of wheat. The grain is generally 5 to 9 mm long, weighs 35 to 50 mg, and has a crease down one side where it was once attached to the wheat blossom. The wheat grain comprises 2-3 percent germ, 13-17 percent bran, and 80-85 percent mealy endosperm (all dry matter components) (Sramkova et al. 2009).

Wheat milling businesses provide byproducts that are used in animal feed, bio-ethanol production, succinic acid manufacturing, as a nutritious additive in baked goods, cosmetics, meat substitutes, nutraceutical/pharmaceutical products, and a variety of other applications. As a consequence, value addition is any step in the manufacturing process that enhances the product for the customer and increases the net worth of the final product; these byproducts might be employed for value addition. Wheat germ is the portion of the wheat kernel that contains the greatest vitamins and minerals. The germ is, in reality, the embryo of the wheat plant. This embryo will ultimately feed the budding wheat plant, which is why it contains so many beneficial nutrients.

By-products of Wheat

1. All-Purpose Flour

It is made from hard wheat crushed endosperm or a mixture of hard and soft wheat kernels. Iron and B-vitamins (thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin) are added to enriched all-purpose flour in levels equal to or more than whole wheat flour color. Chlorine also improves the quality of baked goods by “maturing” or oxidizing the flour, which is useful for making cakes and cookies. The bleaching chemicals react without leaving any hazardous residues or destroying nutrients. Unbleached all-purpose flour is off-white and is bleached by oxygen in the air throughout the aging process. Bleached and unbleached flour are nutritionally equal.

2. Semolina/Rava

Semolina is a coarse, gritty flour that is generally produced from durum wheat. It is made up of the grain’s nutritious heart (endosperm), which is left behind after milling when the fine flour is sorted. Semolina is made from durum wheat middlings that is coarsely cleaned and used to make couscous, pasta, and sweet puddings. The term semolina is also used to refer to coarse middlings from different wheat types, as well as other grains. Bread produced with durum wheat semolina flour has the following characteristics:

• The Crumb structure is fine and consistent.

• Palatable flavor

• Origin and long shelf life

Depending on the quality of the wheat, it can range in color from yellow to white. In the United States and other countries, semolina is mostly used to produce pasta, cereals, and sweets, but in India, it is utilized to prepare both savory and sweet meals. Upma and Rava Idli are two of the most basic and well-known Indian meals made using rava.

3. Wheat Bran

Wheat bran is a waste product of the wheat milling process. It generally makes up 14–19% of the overall grain weight. Wheat bran contains 46 percent non-starch polysaccharides, including arabinoxylan (70 percent), cellulose (24 percent), and beta-glucan (6 percent), as well as tiny quantities of glucoglucomannan and arabinogalactan, making it a good source of dietary fiber. Wheat and oats, for example, have a hard outer shell. When they’re processed, this layer forms bran, which is a byproduct. Similarly, bran is obtained when wheat is processed to produce wheat flour. This bran is high in nutrients and has a variety of health advantages. Wheat bran is high in protein, magnesium, manganese, niacin, phosphorus, zinc, and vitamin B6, as well as being low in fat, cholesterol-free, sugar-free, and sodium-free. Wheat bran is one of the greatest natural sources of dietary fiber. It can aid in the maintenance of regular bowel function and the relief of periodic constipation, such as that induced by dietary changes or travel. Celiac disease sufferers should avoid wheat bran, as they should avoid all wheat sources.

4. Whole Wheat Flour

It is flour made from whole wheat berry. It’s made up of coarsely crushed bran and germ, as well as endosperm. Because the addition of bran decreases the gluten proportion in the flour mix, whole wheat loaves are often heavier than white flour bread. Whole wheat flour has more trace minerals and dietary fiber than white flour and is higher in B vitamins, vitamin E, and protein. Whole wheat flour does not need to be enhanced like white flour since it has so many nutrients. To boost the gluten proportion in most recipes, whole wheat flour can be combined half and half with white flour. Whole wheat flour is also known as graham flour.

Some other byproducts of wheat include:

 Bread flour

 Self-rising flour

 Cake flour

 Pastry flour

 Gluten flour

 Durum flour

Sources and references: Products and byproducts of wheat milling process by Kanojia et al. (2018)

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