What is the importance of career counseling?
The WHO defines mental health as “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and can make a contribution to his or her community “. Mental well-being is a state of mind which can be described as the lack of negative feelings (e.g., sadness, worry), satisfaction with life, fulfillment, and good functioning. Well-being is defined as a pleasant attitude toward life and a happy sensation. Self-reports are commonly used to assess well-being since it is highly subjective with extensive individual variation. Self-reported measures differ significantly from objective measurements (e.g., family income, unemployment rates, and neighborhood violence) that are frequently employed to assess well-being. For public health monitoring objectives, the CDC has used a variety of instruments throughout the years, including psychometrically based, utility-based, and single-item instruments:
- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES):General Well-Being Schedule (1971–1975)General Well-Being Schedule (1971–1975)
- National Health Interview Survey (NHIS):Quality of Well-being Scale, Global life satisfaction, Satisfaction with emotional and social support, Feeling happy in the past 30 days.
- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS):Global life satisfaction, Satisfaction with emotional and social support
- Porter Novelli Healthstyles Survey:Satisfaction with Life Scale, Meaning in life, Autonomy, competence, and relatedness, Overall and domain-specific life satisfaction, Overall happiness, Positive and Negative Affect Scale.
DETERMINANTS OF MENTAL WELL-BEING
Some of the factors affecting mental wellbeing are:
- Physical activity:There is mounting evidence that exercise can help people improve their mental health, mostly by enhancing their mood and self-perception. Experiments show that moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable influence on mood. Participants are more likely to feel effective advantages if they focus on personal improvement goals.
- Gender variance:Men are more likely to be diagnosed with drug addiction and antisocial personality disorder, whereas women are more likely to be diagnosed with severe depression. In the diagnostic rates of illnesses such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and bipolar disorder, there are no significant gender differences.
- Age:There was a link between age and psychological discomfort in two investigations. Following the COVID-19 epidemic in China, one research revealed that middle-aged employees had a higher risk of mental health issues due to increased family stress, whereas another study after SARS found that younger age was linked to greater depressive symptomatology. During an epidemic outbreak, elder HCWs experienced fewer psychological setbacks.
- Educational qualification:There is a correlation between educational qualification and mental illness. Individuals were 15% more likely to see a psychiatrist, 12 percent more likely to see a family doctor, 16 percent more likely to see a psychologist, and 16 percent more likely to see a social worker with each higher degree of schooling in one study conducted by Steele et al. (2007). This leads to the false impression that mental illness is more common in educated people.
- Employment status and role:High job demands, especially emotional demands, and a lack of job stability may characterize occupations with a higher risk of common mental disorders. High degrees of job discretion, adequate job training, and well-defined job duties are some of the reasons why some jobs have a low incidence of common mental disorders.
- Past medical history:In some studies, depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, somatization, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were all linked to the presence of an underlying medical disease. Traumatic experiences were also linked to increased depressive symptomatology.
- Family structure:Disruption in family structure can result in several negative consequences for both children and their parents’ mental health. Disruptions do not all have the same impact. When compared to other forms of interruptions, such as the loss of a parent, divorce causes more emotional and behavioral difficulties in families. Certain traits in caregivers, as well as children themselves, have been identified as risk factors for maltreatment. Risk factors include young age, depression, drug misuse, poverty, and a history of women being removed from their mothers as children.
- Socioeconomic status:Salem State College researcher Christopher G. Hudson, Ph. D. stated that the lower one’s socioeconomic circumstances are, the higher is their chance of mental impairment and psychiatric hospitalization.
- Stigma:When someone has a distinguishing attribute or personal trait that is believed to be a disadvantage, it is referred to as stigma (a negative stereotype). Negative attitudes and views about persons with mental illnesses are unfortunately widespread. Discrimination can result from stigma. Discrimination can be overt and blatant, such as when someone makes a disparaging comment about a person’s mental condition or treatment. It might also be inadvertent or subtle, such as someone avoiding a person because they believe they are unstable, violent, or dangerous as a result of their mental illness. This can lead to reluctance to seek help or a lack of acknowledgment.
4 STEPS TO MENTAL WELLBEING
- Connect with other people/personHealthy connections are essential for mental health. They allow you to share pleasant experiences and develop a sense of belonging and self-worth. They allow you to help others while providing emotional comfort.
- Engage in physical activityBeing active is beneficial not just to your physical health and fitness but also to your mental health and well-being. Evidence also suggests that it can help your mental health by boosting your self-confidence and assisting you in setting and achieving objectives or challenges, creating chemical changes in your brain that can aid to improve your mood
- Acquire new skillsAccording to research, acquiring new abilities can help you enhance your mental health by increasing self-confidence and self-esteem, assisting you in developing a sense of purpose, and assisting in connecting with people. There are a variety of methods to incorporate learning into your life.
- Stay in the present (Mindfulness)It is possible to enhance your mental health by paying greater attention to the current moment. This encompasses your ideas and feelings, as well as your body and the environment. This awareness is referred to as “mindfulness” by some. Mindfulness can help you appreciate life more and have a deeper understanding of yourself. It has the potential to improve your outlook on life and how you handle difficulties.
Sources and references:
- Occupation and mental health in a national UK survey by Stansfeld et al. (2011)
- Effects of Family Structure on Mental Health of Children: A Preliminary Study by Behere et al. (2017)