What are Photovoltaics?
PV devices use an electrical process that happens naturally in specific types of materials called semiconductors to create energy directly from sunshine. Solar energy frees electrons in these materials, which may then be induced to move through an electrical circuit, powering devices, or transferring electricity to the grid.
PV devices may be used to power everything from calculators to road signs, as well as households and big commercial organizations.
How do they work?
Photons ionize the semiconductor material on the solar panel, forcing outside electrons to break their atomic bonds. The electrons are pushed in one direction by the semiconductor structure, resulting in an electrical current flow. Solar cells made of crystalline silicon are not 100 percent efficient, in part because only specific wavelengths of light can be absorbed. Some of the light spectra are reflected, while others (infrared) are too faint to generate electricity, and still others (ultraviolet) generate heat energy rather than electricity.
The photovoltaic effect converts energy from the sun into a flow of electrons, and photovoltaics is best recognized as a method for generating electric power using solar cells.
Solar cells convert sunlight into direct current electricity that may be used to operate equipment or recharge a battery. Photovoltaics were initially employed to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, but today the vast majority of solar modules are utilized in grid-connected power production systems. An inverter is required to convert the DC to AC in this situation. Solar modules made up of several solar cells containing a semiconductor material are used in photovoltaic power generation. Modules (module cable), arrays (array cable), and sub-fields are all connected via copper solar cables. Solar cell and photovoltaic array production have improved significantly in recent years as a result of the rising need for renewable energy sources.
Solar cells need to be protected from the elements, therefore they’re generally packed firmly in solar modules.
Pros of Photovoltaics
Source of Clean and Green Energy
Obtaining Free Raw Materials
Smart Energy Networks Will Be Affected Significantly
In terms of upkeep, this is a low-maintenance option.
Installation is simple.
Cons of Photovoltaics
Issues with inconsistency
Option with less dependable electricity
Additional funding is required.
Makes use of a big space
Gets damaged easily
Sources and references: https://www.seia.org/initiatives/photovoltaics