The processes and actions necessary to manage trash from its inception to its final disposal are referred to as waste management (or waste disposal). This comprises waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal, as well as waste management process monitoring and control, as well as waste-related laws, technologies, and economic systems.
Waste can be solid, liquid, or gaseous, with various disposal and management strategies for each. Industrial, biological, residential, municipal, organic, biomedical, and radioactive wastes are all dealt with via waste management. Waste can, in some situations, be harmful to human health. Throughout the entire waste management process, there are health concerns. Health problems can occur in a variety of ways, both indirectly and directly. Directly, through solid waste management, and indirectly, through water, soil, and food use. Human activity, such as the mining and processing of basic resources, produces waste. Waste management aims to limit waste’s negative effects on human health, the environment, global resources, and aesthetics.
A landfill is a location where waste items are buried for disposal. Although rubbish is buried in landfills, it is the oldest form of waste treatment; originally, refuse was simply piled in piles or dumped into pits. Landfills must be open and accessible to the public daily. While municipalities, businesses, and construction enterprises make up the majority of its customers, residents are authorized to use the dump in most situations. Landfills have long been the most frequent way of organized garbage disposal, and they continue to be so in many parts of the world.
Incineration is a waste disposal procedure that involves combusting solid organic wastes to produce residue and gaseous products. This procedure can be used to dispose of both municipal solid waste and wastewater treatment solid residue. Solid waste quantities are reduced by 80 to 95 percent with this method. The term “thermal treatment” is used to describe incinerators and other high-temperature waste treatment facilities. Waste is converted into heat, gas, steam, and ash in incinerators. Individuals and industry carry out incineration on a local and large scale, respectively. Solid, liquid, and gaseous waste are all disposed of in it. It is accepted as a viable technique of disposing of certain hazardous wastes (such as biological medical waste). Due to concerns such as the production of gaseous pollutants, including significant amounts of carbon dioxide, incineration is a contentious waste disposal method.
Incineration is widespread in nations with limited lands, such as Japan, because the facilities do not require as much space as landfills. Facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam, or electricity are referred to as waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW). Incinerator combustion isn’t always ideal, and there have been worries about contaminants in incinerator stack gaseous emissions. Some very persistent organic chemicals, such as dioxins, furans, and PAHs, may be generated and have major environmental repercussions, as well as some heavy metals, such as mercury and lead, that can be volatilized in the combustion process, have sparked particular worry.
Recycling is a resource recovery technique that entails collecting and reusing waste materials such as empty beverage cans. This procedure entails dismantling and repurposing materials that would otherwise be discarded. There are various advantages to recycling, and with so many new technologies allowing for the recycling of even more materials, it is possible to clean up the planet. Recycling is not only good for the environment, but it is also good for the economy. The resources used to make the things can be recycled to create new items. Recycling materials can be collected separately from trash using special containers and collection vehicles, a process known as kerbside collection. Before collection, the owner of the waste is obliged in certain areas to segregate the materials into different bins (e.g., for paper, plastics, and metals). In some towns, all recyclable materials are collected in a single bin, and sorting is done at a central location afterward. “Single-stream recycling” is the term for the later process. Aluminum beverage cans, copper wire, steel from food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, rubber tires, polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines, and light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes are among the most commonly recycled consumer products.
Also recyclable are PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS. Because these objects are usually made of a single type of material, recycling them into new products is extremely simple. Complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) are more difficult to recycle since they require more breakdown and separation.
Plant material, food scraps, and paper products are examples of recoverable organic materials that can be recovered using composting and digestive methods to degrade the organic matter. The organic waste is subsequently recycled as mulch or compost for use in agriculture or landscaping. Furthermore, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be recovered and used to generate power and heat (CHP/cogeneration), resulting in increased efficiency. Composting and digestion processes and technologies come in a variety of forms. From modest home compost heaps to large-scale industrial digestion of mixed residential waste, they range in complexity. Biological decomposition processes are divided into two categories: aerobic and anaerobic. Hybrids of these two methods are used in several methods. Anaerobic digestion of solid waste’s organic portion is more environmentally friendly than landfilling or incineration. The goal of biological processing in waste management is to control and speed up the natural process of organic matter degradation.